Treatment of all patients with type 1 diabetes. Treatment of patients with type 2 diabetes who are not adequately controlled by diet and/ or oral hypoglycemic agents.For the initial stabilization of diabetes in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis, hyperosmolar non-ketotic syndrome and during periods of stress such as severe infections and major surgery in diabetic patients. Treatment of gestational diabetes.
Medium Acting Insulin
Insulin Human (rDNA) is human insulin made by recombinant DNA technology. It has the same structure and function as natural insulin. Insulin regulates the glucose metabolism and stimulates the ingestion and utilization of glucose by liver, muscle and fat tissue. It also lowers blood glucose by accelerating glycogenesis and inhibiting gluconeogenesis.Insulin Human (rDNA) R starts action within 30 minutes after injection, reaches its peak within 1.5-3.5 hours and lasts about 7-8 hours. Insulin Human (rDNA) N starts action within 1.5 hours after injection, reaches its peak within 4-12 hours & lasts about 24 hours.
The average range of total daily insulin requirement for maintenance therapy in type 1 diabetic patients lies between 0.5 and 1.0 IU/kg. In pre-pubertal children it usually varies from 0.7 to 1.0 IU/kg, whereas in insulin resistant cases, e.g. during puberty or due to obesity, the daily insulin requirement may be substantially higher. Initial dosages for type 2 diabetic patients are often lower, e.g. 0.3 to 0.6 IU/kg/day.The dosage form, the dosage and the administration time of the insulin are different due to the individual differences of each patient. In addition, the dosage is also affected by food, working style and exercising intensity. Therefore, patients should use the insulin under doctor’s instruction.
An injection should be followed by a meal or snack containing carbohydrates within 30 minutes. Injection is administered subcutaneously in the upper arm, thigh, buttock or abdominal wall. A subcutaneous injection into the abdominal wall results in a faster absorption than from other injection sites. Insulin Human (rDNA) R can be given intravenously only by the physician in emergency situations. However, Insulin Human (rDNA) N, is never to be administered intravenously.
When using oral contraceptive drug, adrenal cortical hormone, thyroid hormone, etc., the drugs that can result in the rise of blood glucose; you might need to increase the amount of Insulin. When using drugs with hypoglycemic activities, salicylate, sulfanilamide and other anti-depressants, which will result in the decrease of blood glucose, the dosage of insulin should be reduced.
Hypoglycemia or the patients who have allergic reaction to insulin or any of the excipients.
Hypoglycemia is the most common adverse effect during insulin treatment and symptoms of hypoglycemia may occur suddenly. Few cases of the allergic reaction such as red and swollen or itching are reported. It usually disappears in a few days. In some instances, the allergy may be caused by other reasons rather than insulin, such as disinfectant and poor injection technique.
Pregnancy & Lactation
There are no restrictions on treatment of diabetes with insulin during pregnancy, as insulin does not pass the placental barrier. Insulin treatment of the nursing mother presents no risk to the baby.